Food processing

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Food processing

Food processingany of a variety of operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumptioncookingor storage. A brief treatment of food processing follows. For fuller treatment of storage methods, see food preservation.

Food processing generally includes the basic preparation of foods, the alteration of a food product into another form as in making preserves from fruitand preservation and packaging techniques.

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A number of food-processing innovations have even resulted in new products, such as concentrated fruit juices, freeze-dried coffee, and instant foods. Foods and food supplements have also been processed from such hitherto untapped sources as oilseeds chiefly protein-rich soybeans and cottonseeds ; mutant varieties of crops; leaves, grasses, and aquatic plants; and highly nutritious fish meal and concentrates.

Food processing. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Read More on This Topic. Probably the greatest knowledge of the influence of chemicals in human feeding control relates to artificial sweeteners.

Sugars are phagostimulants;…. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Food preservationany of a number of methods by which food is kept from spoilage after harvest or slaughter. Such practices date to prehistoric times. Among the oldest methods of preservation are drying, refrigeration, and fermentation. Modern methods include canning, pasteurization, freezing, irradiation, and the addition of chemicals.

Advances in…. Sugars are phagostimulants; however, sugars and especially complex carbohydrates e. Important food items produced in whole or in part by the biochemical activities of microorganisms include pickles, sauerkraut, olives, soy sauce, certain types of sausage, all unprocessed cheeses except cream cheese, and many fermented milk products such as yogurt and acidophilus….Learn something new every day More Info Food processing is a procedure in which food is prepared for consumption.

People often use this term to refer specifically to making packaged foods, but technically anything which transforms raw ingredients into something else is a form of food processing, ranging from grilling vegetables in the back yard to making television dinners in a food manufacturing facility. The sector focused on processing food employs large numbers of people, many of whom are unskilled laborers.

There are several purposes to food processing. The most basic goal is to prepare food which is palatable. This can include processing ingredients which are not safe to eat raw, flavoring foods to make them more interesting, and making dishes which comply with cultural and religions norms surrounding food, in addition to addressing issues such as allergies. Processing food is also usually intended to make food which is nutritious, and can include activities such as food fortificationin which vitamins and minerals are added to food during processing to increase the nutritional value.

Safety is also a major concern in food processing, especially industrial processing to create packaged foods which are sold commercially. These facilities can be easily contaminated and the contamination can quickly spread, causing widespread illness.

Part of making food safe includes processing it to remove any potential risks, such as bacteria in milk, in addition to maintaining strict safety procedures to reduce the risk of introducing harmful organisms during processing.

In industrial food processing, these needs must be balanced with the need for preservation. Food which will be eaten in a few days needs to be stabilized so that it will retain texture and flavor in addition to staying safe. Other foods intended to be kept in dry storage for months or years must be specially processed so that they will not go bad. Some of the earliest forms of processing such as pickling and preserving foods echo the need to preserve foods effectively and safely which has challenged human cultures for thousands of years.

Many innovative techniques have been developed for food processing around the world to bring food to market while keeping it safe and flavorful. GraniteChief, What I appreciate your simplistic look at what food processing means to the modern day home food maker. The reality is that processed foods are actually coming out of factories and made on equipment that is both dangerous and made of materials that can harm human body.

Toxins from metal, petroleum lubricants, and other toxic materials are often found inside of a food processing plant. Dairy food processing is one of the biggest culprits of introducing other chemicals into our milk supply. The scary part is, are dairy farms are highly unregulated. GraniteChief Post 1 I think some people overreact to the concept of food processing and what it means to our dietary needs.How do you feed a sick nation?

The stakes are almost unthinkably high. Toilet paper will look like a day at the beach if people believe food…. Sign up to receive our Information-rich reports on critical industry topics delivered straight to your inbox. Visit our portal to check out our topics.

food processing

Learn more. Our live webinars offer you an interactive experience to listen and talk with experts in all facets of the food and beverage industry. See what we're talking about in Keep up with the latest show cancellations and postponements here. Visit our Event Page. Keep up all of the coronavirus content happening throughout the world as it relates to the food and beverage industry. We are the only resource covering the impact as it affects the entire industry, its supply chain, and its workforce.

Stay up to date with the latest news as well as resources for food safety and cleaning, sanitation, and hygiene. Visit our Coronavirus Information Hub. My heart goes out to thepeople who are sick and the 4, who have died as of this writing.

But the panic that briefly gripped all million Americans was if they would be able to eat and feed their families during this unprecedented…. With food and beverage as an essential component of the United States' infrastructure, most food and beverage companies have been working around the clock throughout the coronavirus pandemic.

food processing

Not all manufacturers have fallen into the same…. Our look at the budgets of 31 of the biggest publicly traded, U. Keep yourself entertained during our social distance-approved Quarantine Trivia Quiz.

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Food Processing. Menu Newsletters Subscribe. Newsletters Subscribe. Follow us on:. April Cover Story How do you feed a sick nation? Toilet paper will look like a day at the beach if people believe food… Full Story. Food Processing Industry Events Keep up with the latest show cancellations and postponements here.

Tweet foodprocessing. Recommended Reading Editor's Plate: Food Workers Provide a Heroic Response to Coronavirus My heart goes out to thepeople who are sick and the 4, who have died as of this writing.

But the panic that briefly gripped all million Americans was if they would be able to eat and feed their families during this unprecedented… Full Story.Food processing is any method used to turn fresh foods into food products. Food processing includes traditional heat treatment, fermentation, pickling, smoking, drying, curing and modern methods pasteurisation, ultra-heat treatment, high pressure processing, or modified atmosphere packaging.

Some of the common methods are described below:. The food is heated to a high temperature. This process is called pasteurisation. Then, the food is packaged and stored in an air-tight can. Check our infographic showing the processing steps for canned tomatoes.

The breakdown of sugars by bacteria, yeasts or other microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. This means, no oxygen is needed for the process to take place apart from oxygen present in sugar. Fermentation is notably used in the production of alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider, and in the preservation of foods such as sauerkraut, dry sausages, and yoghurt, but also for raising dough in bread production.

The process can be used to preserve the majority of foods including fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and ready meals. Do you know the steps needed to produce frozen peas? Check them out here! Air inside a package is substituted by a protective gas mix, often including oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen — gases that are also present in the air we breathe.

They help to extend the shelf life of fresh food products - usually of fruits, vegetables, meat and meat products, and seafood. Food is heated and then quickly cooled down to kill microorganisms.

For example, raw milk may contain harmful bacteria that cause foodborne illnesses. Boiling it at home or pasteurising on a large scale is crucial to ensure it is safe to consume. Apart from dairy products, pasteurisation is widely used in preservation of canned foods, juices and alcoholic beverages.

A process of heat and chemical treatment of food to help preserve it by exposing it to smoke from burning material such as wood. Smoked foods usually include types of meat, sausages, fish or cheese. Food additives play an important role in preserving the freshness, safety, taste, appearance and texture of processed foods.

Food additives are added for particular purposes, whether to ensure food safety, or to maintain food quality during the shelf-life of a product. For example, antioxidants prevent fats and oils from becoming rancid, while preservatives prevent or reduce the growth of microbes e.

Emulsifiers are used for instance in improving the texture of mayonnaise, or stopping salad dressings from separating into oil and water. Grain crops, for example wheat and corn, are not edible in their natural state.

Processing techniques, such as milling and grinding, turn them into flour, after which they can be made into breads, cereals, pasta and other edible grain-based products.

There are 3 types of flours depending on the processing level, choose wholegrain when possible. Processing improves or even ensures food safety by removing harmful microorganisms. The main methods are pasteurisation, air-tight packaging, and the use of preservatives.

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It can also cause some fibre and vitamins and minerals to be lost, for example through excessive refining, heating or freezing. Food processing can decrease the cost of foods.Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into foodor of one form of food into other forms.

Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods.

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Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can eventually be eaten.

This category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as dryingthreshingwinnowing and milling grain, shelling nutsand butchering animals for meat. Contamination and spoilage problems in primary food processing can lead to significant public health threats, as the resulting foods are used so widely.

Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use. Baking breadregardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. Tertiary food processing is the commercial production of what is commonly called processed food.

Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with saltand various types of cooking such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven bakingSuch basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay.

Salt-preservation was especially common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods.

Food processing

Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient GreekChaldeanEgyptian and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe, North and South America and Asia. These tried and tested processing techniques remained essentially the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals also date back to before the preindustrial revolution, and include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.

Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs. In Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which ultimately contributed to the development of tinning, and subsequently canning by Peter Durand in Although initially expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would later become a staple around the world.

Pasteurizationdiscovered by Louis Pasteur inimproved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine, beer, and milk preservation. In the 20th century, World War IIthe space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray dryingevaporationjuice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, and such preservatives as sodium benzoate.

In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, and self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed.

By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave ovenblenderand rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience.

Food processing companies marketed their products especially towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods often credited to Clarence Birdseye found their success in sales of juice concentrates and " TV dinners ". Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, preservation, easing marketing and distribution tasks, and increasing food consistency.

In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, and long voyages would not be possible. Processed foods are usually less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long-distance transportation from the source to the consumer. Processing can also reduce the incidence of food-borne disease. Fresh materials, such as fresh produce and raw meats, are more likely to harbour pathogenic micro-organisms e.

Salmonella capable of causing serious illnesses. The extremely varied modern diet is only truly possible on a wide scale because of food processing. Transportation of more exotic foods, as well as the elimination of much hard labor gives the modern eater easy access to a wide variety of food unimaginable to their ancestors. The act of processing can often improve the taste of food significantly.

Mass production of food is much cheaper overall than individual production of meals from raw ingredients. Therefore, a large profit potential exists for the manufacturers and suppliers of processed food products. Individuals may see a benefit in conveniencebut rarely see any direct financial cost benefit in using processed food as compared to home preparation.Food processing has come to be associated with ramen noodles, canned meat, and spongy snack cakes.

The health concerns raised by these products have led many to assume that all processed foods are unhealthy, but do they deserve their reputation? Businesses use food processing techniques to transform raw foods and ingredients into new products.

These techniques run the gamut and include milling grains into flour, crushing seeds to extract their oil, churning milk into butter, mixing ingredients to make batter, and baking cookies on an assembly line. Meat processing, meanwhile, can involve techniques like cutting, deboning, and removing guts from carcasses.

While some food processing techniques use cutting-edge technology, others have been practiced for millennia.

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Thousands of years before food scientists figured out how to make dinosaur-shaped chicken nuggets, early Egyptians were brewing beer and baking leavened bread. Today, for better and for worse, nearly all our food is processed in some way. Food processing offers important benefits to businesses and consumers, including a more varied food supply and foods with a longer shelf life. Certain aspects of food processing, however, raise concerns over dietary health, worker health, and food safety.

food processing

In the s, Napoleon Bonaparte offered a prize to the scientist who could best develop ways to preserve foods for the armies of France. Photo credit: mlhradio, Cropped from original. After fruits and vegetables are harvested, they begin to lose nutrients. Freezing, canning, or storing fresh produce under proper conditions can slow nutrient losses.

food processing

While canned foods are often perceived as less nutritious than fresh or frozen ones, studies show this is not always the case. It depends on the type of produce, how long it had been stored, and how it will be prepared.

Over timeyeasts, molds, bacteria, and other forces cause food to spoil, making it foul-tasting, less nutritious, and potentially unsafe to eat. Many of the oldest food processing techniques, such as drying fruit, pickling vegetables, salting meat, and fermenting dairy e. Processing can also help to inhibit or destroy pathogens disease-causing organisms that may contaminate food.

Preservation techniques such as refrigeration, fermentation, dehydration, and the use of salt, sugar, or chemical preservatives can slow or stop the growth of pathogens.This can be useful, for instance, when you're performing various GET requests and want to compute the union of the returned regions. You'll want this only when unique is set to true, otherwise all those extra values will be equal to 1.

When index is also set to true (see above), the multiplicity column is added after the row index. Useful when paginating over the sample in linear mode. Once you delete a sample, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a sample a second time, or a sample that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete a sample that is being used at the moment, then BigML.

What is Food Processing?

To list all the samples, you can use the sample base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent samples will be returned. You can get your list of samples directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links. You can also paginate, filter, and order your samples. You can also list all of your correlations.

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Example: "This is a description of my new correlation" discretization Object Global numeric field transformation parameters. See the discretization table below. None of the fields in the dataset is excluded. Specifies the fields that won't be included in the correlation. That is, no names or preferred statuses are changed.

This can be used to change the names of the fields in the correlation with respect to the original names in the dataset or to tell BigML that certain fields should be preferred. All the fields in the dataset Specifies the fields to be considered to create the correlation. It is to be applied globally with all input fields. A Discretization object is composed of any combination of the following properties. For example, let's say type is set to "width", size is 7, trim is 0.

Field Discretizations is also used to transform numeric input fields to categoricals before further processing. However, it allows the user to specify parameters on a per field basis, taking precedence over the global discretization.

It is a map whose keys are field ids and whose values are maps with the same format as discretization. It also accepts edges, which is a numeric array manually specifying edge boundary locations. If this parameter is present, the corresponding field will be discretized according to those defined bins, and the remaining discretization parameters will be ignored.

The maximum value of the field's distribution is automatically set as the last value in the edges array. A value object of a Field Discretizations object is composed of any combination of the following properties.


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